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1.
Centroid-based summarization of multiple documents   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
We present a multi-document summarizer, MEAD, which generates summaries using cluster centroids produced by a topic detection and tracking system. We describe two new techniques, a centroid-based summarizer, and an evaluation scheme based on sentence utility and subsumption. We have applied this evaluation to both single and multiple document summaries. Finally, we describe two user studies that test our models of multi-document summarization.  相似文献
2.
Proximity effects on the dynamics and outcomes of scientific collaborations   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper uses path overlap, an innovative measure of functional proximity, to examine how physical space shaped the formation and success of scientific collaborations among the occupants of two academic research buildings. We use research administration data on human subject protection, animal use management, and grant funding applications to construct new measures of collaboration formation and success. The “functional zones” investigators occupy in their buildings are defined by the shortest walking paths among assigned laboratory and office spaces, and the nearest elevators, stairs, and restrooms. When two investigators traverse paths with greater overlap, both their propensity to form new collaborations and to win grant funding for their joint work increase. This effect is robust across two very differently configured buildings. Implications for scientific collaboration and the design and allocation of research space are considered.  相似文献
3.
When public catalog users enter queries that exactly match the catalog's controlled vocabulary, online systems should respond with browsing lists of alphabetically arranged subject headings, because such displays guide users to retrievals based on the assignment of the matched subject headings to bibliographic records. Unfortunately, studies of online catalog searching demonstrate that alphabetical displays are no longer capable of managing large numbers of subdivided forms of subject headings, because searchers exhibit low levels of perseverance when faced with large numbers of retrievals. This paper introduces a new approach to displaying retrieved subject headings in subject searching—the exact-display approach—designed to encourage users to browse bibliographic information. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of the exact-display approach by showing how many user queries would be candidates for this approach, demonstrate an implementation of the exact-display approach in an experimental online catalog, and feature end-user experiences with this approach as implemented in the experimental catalog. End-user experiences gave the authors the opportunity to make several recommendations for enhancing the original design of the exact-display approach so that future implementations of this approach in operational online catalogs are responsive to the needs of online catalog users.  相似文献
4.
This research investigates how people’s perceptions of information retrieval (IR) systems, their perceptions of search tasks, and their perceptions of self-efficacy influence the amount of invested mental effort (AIME) they put into using two different IR systems: a Web search engine and a library system. It also explores the impact of mental effort on an end user’s search experience. To assess AIME in online searching, two experiments were conducted using these methods: Experiment 1 relied on self-reports and Experiment 2 employed the dual-task technique. In both experiments, data were collected through search transaction logs, a pre-search background questionnaire, a post-search questionnaire and an interview. Important findings are these: (1) subjects invested greater mental effort searching a library system than searching the Web; (2) subjects put little effort into Web searching because of their high sense of self-efficacy in their searching ability and their perception of the easiness of the Web; (3) subjects did not recognize that putting mental effort into searching was something needed to improve the search results; and (4) data collected from multiple sources proved to be effective for assessing mental effort in online searching.  相似文献
5.
A new approach for observer-based feedback control of time-delay systems is developed. Time-delays in systems lead to characteristic equations of infinite dimension, making the systems difficult to control with classical control methods. In this paper, a recently developed approach, based on the Lambert W function, is used to address this difficulty by designing an observer-based state feedback controller via assignment of eigenvalues. The designed observer provides estimation of the state, which converges asymptotically to the actual state, and is then used for state feedback control. The feedback controller and the observer take simple linear forms and, thus, are easy to implement when compared to nonlinear methods. This new approach is applied, for illustration, to the control of a diesel engine to achieve improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in emissions. The simulation results show excellent closed-loop performance.  相似文献
6.
We present Biased LexRank, a method for semi-supervised passage retrieval in the context of question answering. We represent a text as a graph of passages linked based on their pairwise lexical similarity. We use traditional passage retrieval techniques to identify passages that are likely to be relevant to a user’s natural language question. We then perform a random walk on the lexical similarity graph in order to recursively retrieve additional passages that are similar to other relevant passages. We present results on several benchmarks that show the applicability of our work to question answering and topic-focused text summarization.  相似文献
7.
Access to information via handheld devices supports decision making away from one’s computer. However, limitations include small screens and constrained wireless bandwidth. We present a summarization method that transforms online content for delivery to small devices. Unlike previous algorithms, ours assumes nothing about document formatting, and induces a hierarchical structure based on the relative importance of sentences within the document. As compared to delivering full documents, the method reduces the bytes transferred by half. An experiment also demonstrates that when given hierarchical summaries, users are no less accurate in answering questions about the documents.  相似文献
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9.
This study examines the facets and patterns of multiple Web query reformulations with a focus on reformulation sequences. Based on IR interaction models, it was presumed that query reformulation is the product of the interaction between the user and the IR system. Query reformulation also reflects the interplay between the surface and deeper levels of user interaction. Query logs were collected from a Web search engine through the selection of search sessions in which users submitted six or more unique queries per session. The final data set was composed of 313 search sessions. Three facets of query reformulation (content, format, and resource) as well as nine sub-facets were derived from the data. In addition, analysis of modification sequences identified eight distinct patterns: specified, generalized, parallel, building-block, dynamic, multitasking, recurrent, and format reformulation. Adapting Saracevic’s stratified model, the authors develop a model of Web query reformulation based on the results of the study. The implications for Web search engine design are finally discussed and the functions of an interactive reformulation tool are suggested.  相似文献
10.
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