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姜芹先  周里 《湖北体育科技》2014,(4):300-303,299
系统评价是循证医学核心的研究方法,目前体育领域中该方面的研究还处于初期阶段。文章介绍系统评价的优势,对其在体育领域研究中的应用现状、存在问题进行分析,并展望了系统评价研究方法的应用前景。  相似文献
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The three aims of this systematic review are to describe: (1) use of the term fundamental motor/movement skills (FMS) in published articles; (2) the quality of definitions; and (3) relative use of process- and product- oriented assessments to measure FMS. The inclusion criteria included: (a) peer-reviewed article, (b) printed in English, (c) published between January 2000 and 31 December 2015, (d) presence of either the term “fundamental motor or movement skill” in the title and/or abstract, and (e) FMS were a measured outcome. There has been an increase in the number of publications on FMS in recent years, with the majority of studies conducted in Australia (n = 41, 33%). Approximately 24% of studies (n = 30) did not provide any explicit definition of FMS. A majority of studies reported the use of process-oriented measures (n = 98, 79%) compared to product-oriented measures (n = 23, 19%), and few studies used both (n = 6, 5%). We recommend that researchers provide: (1) an operational definition of FMS that states FMS are the “building blocks” (or similar terminology) of more advanced, complex movements; (2) specific categories of skills that compose FMS; and (3) at least one specific example of a FMS.  相似文献
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Participation in organized sports is promoted as a means of increasing physical activity levels and reducing chronic disease risk in adults. Hard martial arts practice (i.e. using body contact techniques), has gained in popularity over time. This review explores the evidence for health benefits of “hard” martial arts practice within the adult population. A systematic electronic database search was conducted, and quality assessments applied the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, examining balance, cognitive function, muscular skeletal status, psychological, cardiovascular fitness, and metabolic effects. The majority of studies reported positive effects resulting from hard martial arts practice, showing some improvement and maintenance of balance, cognitive function and psychological health. Benefits may be obtained regardless of the age of practice commencement. However, quality of the evidence is affected by methodological weaknesses across the studies. “Hard” martial arts seem to have potential to improve balance and cognitive functions that decline with age, which can lead to poorer health outcomes among the elderly (e.g. cognitive decline, falls and fractures). Benefits should be further investigated with improved intervention studies, representative samples and longer follow-up periods in order to establish associations with morbidity and mortality in the long term.  相似文献
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To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL injury) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed databases and included studies prior to April 2017. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies evaluating ultrasound to diagnose ACL injury were selected. MRI, arthroscopy and clinical-follow were considered the reference standards. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was assessed using a combination of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (LR), post-test probability, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and by summarizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. A total of 4 studies involving 246 patients were eventually included in the analysis. In these four studies, the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, post-test probability and DOR were 90.0% (95% CI: 77–96), 97% (95% CI: 90–99), 31.08 (95% CI: 8.75–110.41), 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05–0.24), 89% (3%) and 288.81 (95% CI: 78.51–1062.48), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Our meta-analysis showed that ultrasound can play an important role in the diagnosis of ACL injury. Because of its high sensitivity, high specificity and high diagnostic ability, ultrasound should be a part of the standard diagnostic work-up of an ACL injury.  相似文献
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Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity for older adults, only a minority achieve recommended levels. To develop effective interventions, the reasons for the low levels of physical activity in this population must be understood. The present review identifies and synthesizes qualitative studies concerning the acceptability of physical activity to community dwelling older adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases identified 10 studies meeting inclusion criteria. These were appraised, and findings were combined and compared using thematic synthesis. Older adults construed physical activity as a by-product of other activities, rather than as a purposeful activity within itself. This seemed to be linked to their self-perception as an ageing member of society, with physical activity considered irrelevant, and competing roles and responsibilities (e.g., family) taking precedence. Additionally, older adults appeared to experience conflict between maintaining their autonomy and accepting the physical and social vulnerabilities associated with ageing. As older adults do not see physical activity as purposeful within itself, interventions promoting moderate or vigorous physical activity are likely to have limited success. As even small increases in physical activity benefit older adults, future interventions may wish to target the reduction of sedentary behaviour in this population.  相似文献
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