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1.
ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of 8-week force-velocity optimised training was assessed in highly trained professional rugby league athletes. Players (age 24 ± 3 years; body mass 94.9 ± 21.6 kg; height 181.3 ± 6.0 cm) were strength-matched and assigned to a force-velocity optimised group (OP; n = 15) or a general strength-power group (GP; n = 14). Tests included 10-m, 20-m sprints, 3 repetition-maximum squat and squat jumps over five load conditions to ascertain vertical force-velocity relationship. ANCOVA revealed there was a group effect for force-velocity deficit (P < 0.001), with the OP two-fold greater than the GP group (OP pre: 51.13 ± 31.42%, post: 62.26 ± 31.45%, GP pre: 33.00 ± 19.60%, post: 31.14 ± 31.45%, P < 0.001). There were further group effects for 3RM squat (OP pre: 151.17 ± 22.95 kg, post: 162.17 ± 24.16 kg, GP pre: 156.43 ± 25.07 kg, post: 163.39 ± 25.39 kg, P < 0.001), peak power (OP pre: 3195 ± 949 W, post: 3552 ± 1033 W, GP pre: 3468 ± 911 W, post: 3591 ± 936 W, P < 0.001), and SJ (OP pre: 39.79 ± 7.80 cm, post: 42.69 ± 7.83 cm, GP pre: 40.44 ± 6.23 cm, post: 41.14 ± 5.66 cm, P < 0.001). Prescribing F-V deficit training is superior for improving physical performance within highly trained RL players.  相似文献   
2.
目的:探讨不同负荷运动训练对大鼠骨骼肌线粒体三羧酸循环的影响及其机制。方法:将雄性Wistar大鼠50只随机均分为5组:安静对照组(C)、低负荷运动训练组(LT)、中等负荷运动训练组(MT)、高负荷运动训练组(HT)和极高负荷运动训练组(ST),每组10只。各运动组分别进行6周的跑台运动训练。训练方案结束后,取腓肠肌样本,提取线粒体,测定线粒体柠檬酸合成酶(CS)、异柠檬酸脱氢酶(ICD)和α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶(α-KGDHC)活性;线粒体Ga2+含量、胞浆NADH、NAD+、ATP和ADP含量,以及ICD mRNA转录水平。结果:(1)不同负荷运动训练组线粒体CS、ICD和α-KGDHC的活性均显著高于安静对照组(P < 0.01),且CS和ICD活性由高到低顺序均为:MT组 > HT组 > ST组 > LT组 > C组,α-KGDHC活性由高到低顺序为:HT组 > MT组 > ST组 > LT组 > C组。(2)不同负荷运动训练组线粒体Ca2+ 含量均显著高于安静对照组(P < 0.01),其含量由高到低顺序为:MT组 > HT组 > ST组 > LT组 > C组;胞浆NADH/NAD+和ATP/ADP的比值均显著低于安静对照组(P < 0.01),其比值由低到高顺序为:MT组 < ST组 < HT组 < LT组 < C组。(3)不同负荷运动训练组ICD mRNA转录水平均高于安静对照组(P < 0.01),其水平由高到低顺序为: MT组 > HT组 > ST组 > LT组 > C组。结论:低负荷、中等负荷、高负荷及极高负荷运动训练均可提高大鼠骨骼肌线粒体三羧酸循环功能,且中等负荷运动训练效果最佳。其机制与胞浆NADH/NAD+和ATP/ADP比值、线粒体摄钙能力及限速酶基因的表达有关。  相似文献   
3.
采用文献法、测试法、数理统计等方法,以武汉市十三个行政区内528名以太极拳为主要体育健身方式的老年人为样本,以马步蹲起、弓箭步蹲起、肘撑侧桥、肘撑侧桥举腿等与日常生活活动相关联的四个基础动作为测试内容。研究表明,受试人群普遍存在下肢与躯干的功能性力量不足、左右侧肌肉链力量不均衡的问题。虽然样本人群经常进行以太极拳为主要形式的体育锻炼,但在锻炼过程中侧重于套路技能的演练,对功能性力量训练的认识不足及缺乏相应的训练方法,存在科学性盲区,需要引起重视。  相似文献   
4.
研究目的:探究拖重物跑训练手段对短跑运动员的身体素质、途中跑阶段的技术特征及下肢环节肌肉力量的影响,深入认识其对短跑途中跑技术和专项力量的作用机制。研究方法:对14名男子二级左右水平短跑运动员进行为期8周每周3次6%~10% BM负荷的拖重物跑训练,采用高速摄像分析法、等动肌力测试法分析运动员身体素质;支撑阶段髋、膝、踝关节运动学参数和下肢各环节肌肉力量实验前后的变化情况。结果:(1)实验后运动员30m、60m、立定跳远、立定三级跳远等身体素质及专项成绩显著提高;(2)步长、重心水平速度显著性提高,两大腿剪绞平均速度提高、单步时间减少;支撑阶段最小膝、踝角显著降低,角速度提高;(3)髋、膝关节伸/屈肌群PT/BW、AP除膝关节60°/sPT/BW值未见统计学意义,其余各角速度下PT/BW、AP均呈显著性差异,踝关节跖屈肌群各角速度下PT/BW值显著提高,跖屈肌群60°/s速度下AP提高,背屈肌群AP略降低。结论:适宜负荷的拖重物跑训练可显著改善短跑运动员运动素质、提高运动成绩;有利于提高髋关节剪绞-制动力量,使膝、踝关节处于低位超等长"屈蹬"状态;提高了髋、膝关节屈伸肌群快速主动收缩能力及踝关节跖屈肌群退让性快速收缩能力。  相似文献   
5.
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the GymAware PowerTool (GPT). Thirteen resistance trained participants completed three visits, consisting of three repetitions of free-weight back squat, bench press, deadlift (80% one repetition maximum), and countermovement jump. Bar displacement, peak and mean velocity, peak and mean force, and jump height were calculated using the GPT, a three-dimensional motion capture system (Motion Analysis Corporation; 150 Hz), and a force plate (Kistler; 1500 Hz). Least products regression were used to compare agreeability between devices. A within-trial one-way ANOVA, typical error (TE; %), and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) were used to assess reliability. Regression analysis resulted in R2 values of >0.85 for all variables excluding deadlift mean velocity (R2 = 0.54–0.69). Significant differences were observed between visits 3-2 for bench press bar displacement (0.395 ± 0.055 m; 0.383 ± 0.053 m), and deadlift bar displacement (0.557 ± 0.034 m; 0.568 ± 0.034 m). No other significant differences were found. Low to moderate TE (0.6–8.8%) were found for all variables, with SWC ranging 1.7–7.4%. The data provides evidence that the GPT can be used to measure kinetic and kinematic outputs, however, care should be taken when monitoring deadlift performance.  相似文献   
6.
ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to provide reference values for lower-limb muscle power assessed during the incremental jump squat (JS) test in elite athletes (i.e., professional athletes competing at international level). We pooled data from all JS tests performed by elite athletes of different sports in two high-performance centres between 2015 and 2019, and computed reference values (i.e., terciles) for mean power (MP), mean propulsive power (MPP), and peak power (PP). Reference values were obtained from 684 elite athletes (458 male and 226 female) of 16 different sports (boxing, judo, karate, fencing, taekwondo, wrestling, basketball, soccer, futsal, handball, rugby union, badminton, tennis, long distance running, triathlon, and sprinting). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found between male and female athletes for MP (7.47 ± 1.93 and 6.15 ± 1.68 W·Kg?1, respectively), MPP (10.50 ± 2.75 and 8.63 ± 2.43 W·Kg?1), and PP (23.64 ± 6.12 and 19.35 ± 5.49 W·Kg?1). However, the velocity at which these power measures was attained seemed to be independent of sex (~0.95, 1.00 and 2.00 m·s?1 for mean, mean propulsive, and peak velocity, respectively) and homogeneous across different sport disciplines (coefficient of variation <10%). These data can be used to classify athletes’ power capabilities, and the optimum velocity ranges provided here could be useful for training purposes.  相似文献   
7.
This study examined the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) power and physical function in adults with severe obesity. Thirty-eight adults (age: 44 ± 12 years; body mass index [BMI]: 45.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2) completed evaluations of STS power, strength and functional performance. STS power was measured with a wearable inertial sensor, strength was assessed with the isometric mid-thigh pull, and function was measured with the timed up-and-go (TUG), six-minute walk test (6MWT) and 30-s chair STS. Power and strength (normalised to body mass) entered regression models in addition to age, gender, BMI and physical activity (daily step count). Power displayed large univariate associations with TUG (r = 0.50) and 30-s chair STS (r = 0.67), and a moderate association with 6MWT (r = 0.49). Forward stepwise regression revealed that power independently contributed to TUG (β = ?0.40, p = 0.010), 30-s chair STS (β = 0.67, p < 0.001) and 6MWT performance (β = 0.27, p = 0.007). Power also appeared to be a superior determinant of function compared with strength. Power generated via the STS transfer largely underpins the ability to perform functional tasks in adults with severe obesity, although intervention studies are required to investigate a potentially causal relationship.  相似文献   
8.
We investigated combined effects of ambient temperature (23°C or 13°C) and fraction of inspired oxygen (21%O2 or 13%O2) on energy cost of walking (Cw: J·kg?1·km?1) and economical speed (ES). Eighteen healthy young adults (11 males, seven females) walked at seven speeds from 0.67 to 1.67 m s?1 (four min per stage). Environmental conditions were set; thermoneutral (N: 23°C) with normoxia (N: 21%O2) = NN; 23°C (N) with hypoxia (H: 13%O2) = NH; cool (C: 13°C) with 21%O2 (N) = CN, and 13°C (C) with 13%O2 (H) = CH. Muscle deoxygenation (HHb) and tissue O2 saturation (StO2) were measured at tibialis anterior. We found a significantly slower ES in NH (1.289 ± 0.091 m s?1) and CH (1.275 ± 0.099 m s?1) than in NN (1.334 ± 0.112 m s?1) and CN (1.332 ± 0.104 m s?1). Changes in HHb and StO2 were related to the ES. These results suggested that the combined effects (exposure to hypoxia and cool) is nearly equal to exposure to hypoxia and cool individually. Specifically, acute moderate hypoxia slowed the ES by approx. 4%, but acute cool environment did not affect the ES. Further, HHb and StO2 may partly account for an individual ES.  相似文献   
9.
Muscle imbalance and deficit are key parameters for guiding rehabilitation and sports sessions and avoiding injuries. However, the high cost and non-portable nature of most instruments employed for muscle strength assessment frequently hamper an affordable evaluation in field conditions. This study evaluated the validity and reliability of a low-cost digital dynamometer to assess the maximal isometric strength of upper limb muscles. Fourteen physically active volunteers performed the main movements of the upper limb at maximal isometric strength: flexion-extension, internal-external rotation and abduction-adduction of the shoulder; and flexion-extension of both elbow and wrist. Validity was examined by comparing the strength values from the low-cost digital dynamometer and those measured by an isokinetic dynamometer, assumed as the gold standard. The correlation between both devices was perfect (r > 0.913), while Bland-Altman plots showed absolute agreement between both devices, the maximum range of the values of bias was ?0.99–1.00 N in wrist extension. Inter-tester and intra-tester reliability were excellent for all movements (ICC ≥ 0.855). The low-cost digital dynamometer showed strong validity and excellent reliability in assessing maximal isometric strength during the main movements of the upper limb. Professionals may use it for an affordable isometric muscle strength assessment in field situations.  相似文献   
10.
Aim was to identify critical load (CL) in young and elderly apparently healthy male cohorts. To contrast the metabolic, cardiovascular and perceptual responses on CL according to age. We evaluated 12 young (23 ± 3 years) and 10 elderly (70 ± 2 years) apparently healthy active males, who underwent: (1) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test on a 45° Leg Press; (2) on different days, three high-intensity resistance exercise constant load tests (60%, 75% and 90% 1RM) until fatigue (Tlim). Absolute values of both the CL asymptote and curvature constant (kg) were significantly lower in elderly subjects (P < 0.05). In contrast, elderly subjects demonstrated a significantly higher number of repetitions at CL when compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). As expected, oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) during maximal aerobic exercise testing were significantly reduced in older subjects. However, percent-predicted aerobic capacity were higher in older subjects (P < 0.05). In addition, blood lactate ([La?]) corrected to Tlim and rating of perceived exertion values were greater in younger subjects at all intensities (P < 0.05). These findings, despite reduced force production in older subjects, endurance-related parameters are well preserved according to age-adjusted percent-predicted values in apparently healthy males.  相似文献   
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